Common characteristics of motor patterns were observed across the tasks between both infant chimpanzees and 1-year-old infants.
As the chimpanzees decided which objects were to tướng be named and shown, they also incorporated many aspects of the teacher's role into their own behavior.
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Particularly exciting are the new perspectives on early hominid language which have arisen from recent research on the linguistic competence of chimpanzee and bonobo.
We may well ask whether such elaborate vertical cultural transmission could occur at all if females were dispersing from natal groups, as happens among chimpanzees.
An additional suggestive observation is that the mirror system in chimpanzees corresponds to tướng an area associated with language in humans.
There is no more reason to tướng invoke a human model than vãn a chimpanzee model, or neither.
But, it would fall far short of cross-fostering in which infant chimpanzees are maintained from birth under nearly human conditions.
In each case further along in the spectrum, one more human ren is inserted while the corresponding chimpanzee ren is deleted, if necessary.
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With respect to tướng faecal clumps that contained whole seeds, chimpanzees and gorillas passed 1.7 species of seed per defecation on average.
This commentary heartily endorses that position with examples of methods and results found in sign language studies of cross-fostered chimpanzees.
Unlike the chopped exhalations of human laughter, chimpanzee utterances have only one sound produced per inward and outward breath.
In contrast to tướng arboreal monkeys, a high percentage of chimpanzee and gorilla defecations contain seeds.
Thus, when known, the learning of cultural behaviour can be very similar in humans and chimpanzees.
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The essential point is that humans share quite a similar memory process with chimpanzees.
The characteristics of laughter in chimpanzees point to tướng a critical constraint on the evolution of speech and language in the great apes.
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